What Is DarkHotel? How Does It Work? Types And More
DarkHotel is a sophisticated cyberattack group that specializes in highly targeted attacks. They focus on compromising the networks of luxury hotels and using them as a launching pad for their malicious activities. By infiltrating hotel networks, DarkHotel gains access to a wide range of potential victims, including high-profile individuals such as business executives and political officials.
What Is DarkHotel?
DarkHotel is a sophisticated cyberattack group that has gained notoriety for its highly targeted and malicious activities. The name “DarkHotel” stems from their distinctive method of tracking travelers’ plans and launching attacks through compromised hotel Wi-Fi networks. They have also been referred to as “Tapaoux” due to the name of the Trojan they frequently use in their attacks. Initially focused on business targets, DarkHotel has expanded its scope to include politicians and other high-profile individuals. With a long and consistent history, they pose a significant threat to national economies and global politics.
How Does The DarkHotel Threat Work?
DarkHotel employs a combination of spear phishing, dangerous malware, and botnet automation to carry out their attacks. Their modus operandi involves using layered attacks, typically consisting of two malware infection stages.
In the first stage, DarkHotel lures victims with bait, often in the form of a Trojan, to gain initial access to their devices. This allows the attackers to identify high-value targets among the compromised devices. The malware payload remains dormant for months, waiting for further instructions from a command-and-control (C&C) server.
Once the attackers have identified their high-value targets, they proceed to the second stage of infection. These individuals are specifically targeted and infected with a kernel-level keylogger or other spyware. This enables DarkHotel to collect any private data entered or stored on the compromised devices.
Who Is Targeted By DarkHotel Attacks?
DarkHotel has been operating for over a decade and has targeted thousands of victims globally. While 90% of their infections have been observed in Japan, Taiwan, China, Russia, and Korea, infections have also been reported in countries such as Germany, the USA, Indonesia, India, and Ireland.
The primary targets of DarkHotel attacks include officials and executives in defense industrial bases, governments, non-government organizations (NGOs), large electronics and peripherals manufacturers, pharmaceutical companies, medical providers, military-related organizations, and energy policymakers.
DarkHotel APT exhibits a particular interest in political officials and global C-level executives who drive economic growth and investments. They have also targeted nuclear-equipped nations. Within enterprise sectors, their attacks focus on CEOs, Senior Vice Presidents, Sales and Marketing Directors, and top R&D staff.
DarkHotel often initiates attacks by exploiting vulnerabilities in individual employees’ security awareness. Staff members with public-facing roles, such as senior executives and sales and marketing personnel, are particularly vulnerable, especially when they are traveling and connecting to untrusted networks, such as those in hotels. The use of personal devices without proper antivirus protection further increases the risk.
Types Of DarkHotel Attacks
1. Hotel Attack Campaign:
DarkHotel targets travelers by infecting hotel Wi-Fi networks. They plant a Trojan on the hotel’s server, which spreads to guests’ devices disguised as legitimate software updates. This initial infection helps them identify high-value targets, and further malware is downloaded to steal confidential data.
2. Spear Phishing Campaign
DarkHotel engages in targeted spear phishing attacks through email. They send carefully disguised emails with DarkHotel implants, often discussing topics like nuclear energy and weaponry. These emails may contain zero-day exploits or redirect victims’ browsers to exploit vulnerabilities.
3. P2P Malware Campaign:
DarkHotel also spreads malware indiscriminately through Japanese peer-to-peer file-sharing sites. The malware is disguised as explicit content but installs a backdoor Trojan to gather confidential data from victims.
Why DarkHotel Attacks Matter
DarkHotel attacks are significant due to their sophisticated tactics and high-value targets. The attackers demonstrate advanced coding skills and careful planning, making their attacks difficult to trace. The scale and precision of their targeting suggest nation-state involvement, posing a threat to national security. DarkHotel’s ongoing spear phishing and botnet methods continue to be a risk for users.
How Can I Prevent A DarkHotel Attack
While preventing DarkHotel attacks completely may be challenging, here are some tips to stay safe:
1. Use a trusted VPN:
When accessing public or semi-public Wi-Fi networks, use a virtual private network (VPN) to encrypt your connection and protect against infected servers.
2. Recognize spear phishing red flags:
Be cautious of emails with odd spelling in the sender’s address and requests to open links or attachments. Attackers often create a sense of urgency or heightened emotions to trick victims into compromising themselves.
3. Verify email authenticity:
Use official phone numbers or contact the sender in person to verify the email’s authenticity. Do not rely on contact information provided within the email, as it may be fraudulent.
4. Keep software updated:
Regularly update your system software to install security patches that address known vulnerabilities. Verify updates through official vendor channels to avoid falsified updates.
5. Exercise caution with P2P files:
Treat files shared over peer-to-peer networks with suspicion and caution. Verify executable files and be aware that even legitimate files can be modified for malicious purposes.
6. Limit software updates while traveling:
If possible, avoid accepting software updates while connected to unsecured hotel Wi-Fi networks to minimize the risk of hotel Wi-Fi exploits.
7. Install quality internet security software:
Use comprehensive internet security software that includes proactive defense against new threats. Features like link threat scanning and phishing filters can help protect against DarkHotel-like threats.
How To Protect Yourself From DarkHotel
1. Be wary of suspicious emails and links:
DarkHotel often uses spear-phishing campaigns to trick individuals into clicking on malicious links or downloading malware. Be cautious of emails from unfamiliar sources and avoid clicking on links or downloading attachments unless you are certain they are safe. Look for signs of phishing, such as misspellings, grammatical errors, or requests for personal information.
2. Use strong passwords:
Create unique, complex passwords for all of your accounts. Avoid using common phrases, personal information, or easily guessable patterns. Consider using a password manager to generate and store strong passwords securely. Enable two-factor authentication whenever possible for an added layer of security.
3. Keep your software and devices up to date:
Cybercriminals often exploit vulnerabilities in software and operating systems. Regularly update your devices, including laptops, smartphones, and IoT devices, with the latest security patches and firmware updates. Enable automatic updates whenever possible to ensure you stay protected against emerging threats.
4. Use a VPN:
A virtual private network (VPN) encrypts your internet connection and routes it through a secure server, protecting your online activity from prying eyes. When connected to a VPN, your data is encrypted, making it difficult for cybercriminals to intercept and exploit it. Use a reputable VPN service when accessing the internet, especially when using public Wi-Fi networks.
5. Install reputable security software:
Use a reliable antivirus or anti-malware software to detect and remove threats like DarkHotel. Regularly update the software and run scans to identify any potential malware or suspicious activities on your devices. Consider using a comprehensive security suite that provides real-time protection, firewall, and other advanced features.
What To Do If You Are Infected With DarkHotel
1. Disconnect from the internet:
Immediately disconnect the infected device from the internet to prevent the malware from spreading or communicating with the cybercriminals. Unplug the Ethernet cable or turn off Wi-Fi connectivity.
2. Run a malware scan:
Use a reputable antivirus or anti-malware software to scan your device for malware. Follow the software’s instructions to remove any detected threats. If the malware is particularly stubborn or complex, consider using specialized malware removal tools or seeking professional assistance.
3. Change your passwords:
After cleaning your device, change the passwords for all of your accounts. This includes email, social media, online banking, and any other accounts that may have been compromised. Ensure you use strong, unique passwords for each account to minimize the risk of future unauthorized access.
4. Notify your employer or relevant authorities:
If you believe the DarkHotel malware was used to access sensitive information or systems, notify your employer or relevant authorities immediately. They can initiate an investigation, assess the impact, and take appropriate actions to mitigate any potential damage. Follow your organization’s incident response protocols if they have been established.
5. Update your security measures:
Once the malware has been removed, update your security measures to prevent future infections. Ensure your antivirus software, firewalls, and other protective measures are up to date. Regularly check for software updates and patches to address any vulnerabilities that could be exploited by cyber threats.
6. Educate yourself and others:
Learn about common cyber threats like DarkHotel and how to recognize and avoid them. Stay informed about the latest phishing techniques, malware trends, and cybersecurity best practices. Share this knowledge with friends, family, and colleagues to help them protect themselves from similar attacks.
7. Regularly backup your data:
Implement a regular backup strategy for your important files and data. This can be done using an external hard drive, cloud storage, or a combination of both. Regularly back up your data to ensure you have a recent copy that can be restored in case of a malware infection or other data loss incidents.
8. Consider professional help:
If you are unsure about how to handle the situation or if the infection seems severe, consider seeking professional help from a cybersecurity expert or IT specialist. They can guide you through the recovery process, conduct a thorough analysis of your systems, and help ensure your device and data are secure moving forward.