Data loss prevention (DLP) is a critical aspect of data security that organizations must implement to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access or disclosure. By utilizing advanced technologies and following best practices, DLP aims to prevent data breaches and leaks, ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of organizational data.
What Is DLP
Data loss prevention (DLP), as defined by Gartner, refers to technologies that perform content inspection and contextual analysis of data transmitted through messaging applications, in motion over the network, in use on managed endpoint devices, and at rest in on-premises file servers or cloud applications and storage. These solutions execute responses based on policies and rules defined to address the risk of inadvertent or accidental leaks or exposure of sensitive data outside authorized channels.
Definition and Scope
Gartner’s definition of DLP encompasses the comprehensive inspection of data in various states, including in motion, at rest, and in use. The goal is to mitigate the risk of data leaks or exposure beyond authorized channels, ensuring the security of sensitive information.
Types of DLP Solutions
1. Enterprise DLP: These solutions offer comprehensive coverage for desktops, servers, and networks. They come in the form of agent software, physical or virtual appliances, and soft appliances for data discovery.
2. Integrated DLP: This category includes DLP functionalities integrated into specific gateways, encryption products, content management platforms, data classification tools, data discovery tools, and cloud access security brokers (CASBs).
How does DLP work?
DLP solutions employ content awareness and contextual analysis to effectively protect sensitive data from unauthorized exposure or accidental leaks.
Understanding Content Awareness and Contextual Analysis
Content awareness involves capturing the envelope (context) and analyzing the content within it. Contextual analysis encompasses external factors such as headers, size, and format, which provide additional intelligence about the content without directly accessing its details. Both content awareness and contextual analysis are essential for a comprehensive DLP solution.
Content Inspection: Identifying Sensitive Data
One of the key components of DLP is content inspection. This involves analyzing the actual content of data to identify any sensitive information that may be at risk. Through the use of predefined rules or regular expressions, DLP systems can scan and detect patterns such as personally identifiable information (PII). This can include social security numbers, credit card information, or financial data.
Techniques in DLP: Preventing Data Loss
DLP utilizes various techniques to detect and prevent data loss. These techniques include:
1. Rule-Based/Regular Expressions
DLP systems employ predefined rules or patterns to identify specific types of sensitive information. By scanning data for common patterns like credit card numbers or social security numbers, DLP can effectively detect potential breaches.
2. Database Fingerprinting
This technique involves comparing data against a database of known sensitive information. By matching data to items in the database, DLP can identify structured data such as credit card numbers or account numbers.
3. Exact File Matching
DLP systems can compare file hashes to identify exact matches. This technique is useful for detecting duplicate files or identifying files that have been tampered with.
4. Partial Document Matching
DLP can identify partial matches or similarities in specific files. For instance, it can detect different versions of a form or document containing sensitive information.
Using dictionaries and rules, DLP can identify unstructured ideas or concepts that may indicate sensitive information. This technique is particularly useful for detecting sensitive information that may not follow a specific pattern.
6. Statistical Analysis
DLP can leverage machine learning or statistical methods to analyze large volumes of data. By identifying patterns or anomalies, statistical analysis can help detect policy violations or potential data breaches.
DLP Best Practices: Ensuring Effective Implementation
To ensure the successful deployment of a DLP program, organizations should follow best practices, including:
- Establishing a centralized DLP program to oversee data security efforts.
- Evaluating internal resources and expertise to effectively implement DLP technologies.
- Conducting a thorough inventory and assessment of data to identify sensitive information.
- Implementing DLP in phases to manage complexity and ensure a smooth transition.
- Creating a classification system for data to prioritize protection efforts.
- Establishing data handling and remediation policies to respond to potential breaches.
- Providing regular training and education to employees about data security and DLP best practices.
What are DLP tools?
DLP tools, or Data Loss Prevention tools, are software solutions designed to protect sensitive data from being lost, leaked, or stolen. These tools help organizations identify and classify sensitive information, monitor its usage, and prevent unauthorized access or data breaches. DLP tools typically include features such as data discovery, data classification, data monitoring, access controls, encryption, and incident response capabilities.
Some popular DLP tools include:
1. Comodo MyDLP: This tool helps organizations identify and secure sensitive data, manage user permissions, and protect data stored on cloud servers.
2. SolarWinds Access Rights Manager: This tool provides reports on access authorizations, monitors data access, and triggers alerts for unauthorized activities.
3. CA Data Protection: This tool focuses on identifying sensitive data, securing it, and reporting unauthorized access attempts. It helps prevent data theft and ensures compliance with data confidentiality regulations.
4. Code42: Code42 backs up and monitors data files, tracks user access and activities, and provides a clear audit trail for information security.
5. Teramind: Teramind scans systems for sensitive data, tracks user activities, and protects against insider threats. It includes features such as website and application monitoring, keystroke logging, and behavior analysis.
6. Digital Guardian Endpoint DLP: This tool scans the entire system for sensitive data, blocks unauthorized activities, and provides protection against both external and internal threats.
7. Check Point: Check Point is a network security provider that offers DLP solutions with various policy options and a remediation module for user activity management.