What Is VPN Protocols?: PPTP, L2TP, OpenVPN, And More

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In the expansive realm of VPN services, the choice extends beyond providers; it encompasses various VPN protocols, each with its own set of advantages and drawbacks. This guide aims to demystify the intricacies of VPN protocols, focusing on popular options like OpenVPN, L2TP/IPSec, PPTP, SSTP, IKEv2, IPSec, SSL/TLS, and the newer entrant, WireGuard. Additionally, we touch upon proprietary protocols employed by certain VPN providers.

What Is A VPN Protocol?

A VPN protocol serves as a set of rules governing the transmission of data between your device and the VPN server. VPN providers typically offer multiple protocols, each with unique characteristics. Examples include OpenVPN, L2TP/IPSec, and proprietary protocols like NordLynx and Lightway.

Common VPN Protocols

1. OpenVPN

  • Description: Open-source, highly configurable, and adaptable for various ports and encryption types.
  • Use Case: General-purpose VPN use, increasingly adopted as the default protocol by paid VPN providers.
  • Speed: Comparable to L2TP, not as fast as PPTP.
  • Security: Utilizes OpenSSL, supporting robust encryption algorithms such as AES and Blowfish.

2. L2TP/IPSec

  • Description: Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol paired with IPSec for security.
  • Use Case: Balancing security and privacy when accessing the internet through a VPN.
  • Speed: Debated but generally comparable to OpenVPN.
  • Security: No major vulnerabilities, but concerns exist regarding potential compromise by the NSA.


  • Description: Oldest widely-used VPN protocol, developed by Microsoft.
  • Use Case: Connecting to the internet and intranet, particularly for corporate network access.
  • Speed: Fastest VPN protocol but lacks security.
  • Security: Prone to vulnerabilities; actively decrypted and monitored by the NSA.


  • Description: Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol, a Windows-centric proprietary protocol.
  • Use Case: Limited use, primarily by Windows users who trust Microsoft’s technology.
  • Speed: Similar to OpenVPN.
  • Security: Configurable with strong AES encryption; trust in Microsoft required.

5. IKEv2

  • Description: Internet Key Exchange version 2, jointly developed by Microsoft and Cisco.
  • Use Case: Particularly useful for mobile devices, quick to reconnect in case of network changes.
  • Speed: Comparable to OpenVPN with quick connection establishment.
  • Security: Supports multiple levels of AES encryption, trustworthy if Microsoft is trusted.

6. IPSec

  • Description: Internet Protocol Security, operates at the network level and often paired with other VPN protocols.
  • Use Case: Commonly used for site-to-site VPNs and by iOS VPN apps.
  • Speed: Generally faster than SSL.
  • Security: Secure, although concerns arose from the NSA’s attempts to insert vulnerabilities.


  • Description: Transport Security Layer (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Socket Layer (SSL).
  • Use Case: Forms the basis for SSL VPNs like OpenVPN.
  • Speed: Depends on the VPN protocol and encryption level.
  • Security: TLS is newer and more secure than SSL.

8. WireGuard

  • Description: Newer, efficient, and lightweight VPN protocol.
  • Use Case: Still in development but gaining popularity for its speed and efficiency.
  • Speed: Significantly faster than many protocols; notable improvements reported.
  • Security: Utilizes state-of-the-art cryptography; static IP addresses pose a privacy consideration.

Proprietary Protocols

Some VPN providers opt for proprietary protocols, like Hotspot Shield’s Catapult Hydra, ExpressVPN’s Lightway, and NordVPN’s NordLynx. These may offer varying levels of performance and security. It’s crucial to note that using open-source protocols is generally recommended for transparency and auditability.

VPN Types: Secure vs. Trusted

  • Secure VPNs: Encrypt and authenticate online traffic, ensuring data confidentiality. OpenVPN is a prime example.
  • Trusted VPNs: Focus on providing a dedicated line without encryption, relying on trust in the VPN provider. Less common due to security risks.

Choosing The Right VPN Protocol

Browsing: OpenVPN for versatility and security.
Streaming: WireGuard excels with its lightweight design.
Security: OpenVPN stands out for its proven track record and strong encryption.
Mobile: IKEv2 for its reliability and quick reconnection.
Older Devices: L2TP/IPSec for widespread compatibility.

FAQs on VPN Protocols

1. What is the fastest VPN protocol?

WireGuard is widely regarded as the fastest VPN protocol, known for its efficiency and improved connection speeds.

2. Which VPN protocol is most secure?

OpenVPN is often considered the most secure VPN protocol due to its robust encryption and extensive security audits.

3. Can I switch between VPN protocols?

Yes, most VPN providers offer multiple protocols, allowing users to switch based on specific needs. Configuration adjustments may be required.

4. What is the difference between TCP and UDP?

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is connection-based, ensuring reliable data delivery. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is connectionless, providing faster but less reliable data transmission.

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