What Is Whitelisting (Allowlisting) – A Comprehensive Guide
One effective strategy used by IT administrators is whitelisting, also known as allowlisting. This comprehensive guide will delve into the concept of whitelisting, how it works, examples, its counterpart blacklisting, and best practices for implementation.
What Is Whitelisting (Allowlisting)
Whitelisting, also referred to as allowlisting, is a cybersecurity strategy that involves approving a list of email addresses, IP addresses, domain names, or applications while denying access to all others. Its primary purpose is to safeguard computers and networks by only allowing communication with trusted sources and blocking potentially harmful or inappropriate material. IT administrators utilize whitelisting as a proactive measure to protect local networks or internet-connected systems.
How Does Whitelisting Work?
Whitelisting operates based on a strict policy set and is managed by IT administrators. The process involves compiling a comprehensive list of allowed sources, destinations, or applications that users require access to. This list is then applied to network appliances, desktops, servers, or operating systems. Once applied, the network device or server actively monitors user, device, or application requests. It allows access to whitelisted services while denying all other requests that do not match the approved entries. By default, any components not on the whitelist are automatically denied access.
Examples Of Whitelisting
a) Email Spam Filters:
Email spam filters are designed to prevent unsolicited or unwanted emails (spam) from reaching users’ inboxes. However, occasionally legitimate emails may be mistakenly blocked. Whitelisting allows users to create a personalized whitelist, ensuring that specific approved senders’ emails bypass the spam filter and reach the intended recipient.
b) Access Control Lists (ACLs):
ACLs are commonly used in network routers to control traffic flow and permit or deny access based on IP addresses. By configuring ACLs, network administrators can create whitelists that explicitly allow access to individual or blocks of IP addresses. Any IP address not included in the whitelist is automatically denied access.
What Does It Mean To Be Put On A Whitelist?
When a user or department requests access to a specific approved application or a remote server/service that is not accessible from corporate devices or networks, they may be put on a whitelist. Being on a whitelist means that the destination, application, or service is considered safe and access is granted. By granting access to whitelisted entities, organizations can ensure that users can securely connect to trusted resources while mitigating potential risks from unauthorized or malicious sources.
Blacklisting, or blocklisting, is the opposite of whitelisting. It involves granting network access to everyone except those explicitly listed as banned users. While whitelisting allows for control and monitoring of specific users and devices, blacklisting can only protect against known threats. Common examples of blacklisting include antivirus and anti-malware software that maintain a blocklist of known cyber threats, preventing them from causing harm to devices.
Whitelist Vs. Blacklist (Blocklist)
Whitelisting and blacklisting are two different approaches to managing access and security. Whitelisting explicitly permits access to approved applications or services, while blacklisting explicitly denies access to known threats or unauthorized entities. The choice between whitelisting and blacklisting depends on the specific requirements of an organization. If the number of items or applications that need to be permitted is greater than those that need to be blocked, a whitelist may be more suitable. However, blacklists are often favored in situations where known threats need to be blocked.
Different Types Of Allowlisting
Allowlisting, also known as whitelisting, is a cybersecurity strategy that involves approving a list of trusted entities or applications while denying access to all others. Here are different types of allowlisting that can enhance your online experience and improve security:
1. Email Allowlisting:
Email allowlisting is a common practice where users or system administrators create a list of approved email addresses. This ensures that emails from these addresses bypass spam filters and reach the intended recipient’s inbox. It helps prevent important emails from being mistakenly marked as spam and protects against phishing attacks. However, new contacts may not be able to reach you unless they are added to the allowlist.
2. Application Allowlisting:
Application allowlisting is crucial in high-security environments. It involves creating a list of approved applications or executable files that are allowed to run on a device. By doing so, any other unrecognized application is considered malicious and prevented from executing. Application allowlisting helps protect against malware, such as keyloggers or ransomware, by blocking unauthorized applications. It typically analyzes factors like file names, sizes, cryptographic hashes, and digital signatures to identify acceptable and unacceptable applications.
3. IP Allowlisting:
IP allowlisting is useful for organizations that require heightened security and privacy. It involves setting rules on servers or web servers to only allow access from specific IP addresses. For example, a company may want to restrict access to a corporate application or server to only its employees by adding their IP addresses to the allowlist. However, it is important for the allowed IP addresses to be static for the allowlist to be effective.
4. Advertising Allowlisting:
Advertising allowlisting refers to the process of allowing certain ads to be displayed while blocking others. This is commonly seen in ad blockers, where users can create an allowlist of websites whose ads they want to see. It helps support specific websites while still blocking unwanted ads. By allowing certain ads, users can have more control over their online advertising experience.
Types Of Email Allowlisting
Within email allowlisting, there are two main types:
a) Non-commercial Allowlisting:
This type focuses on blocking spam emails. Senders must meet specific criteria, such as not being an open relay and having a static IP address, to pass the allowlisting test.
b) Commercial Allowlisting:
In this type, internet service providers allow entities to bypass their allowlisting filters and send emails to their users for a fee. Paying entities can ensure their content reaches users by purchasing a place on the allowlist.
Why Do We Need Allowlisting?
Allowlisting offers several benefits and is recommended for organizations of all sizes:
1. Enhanced Security:
Allowlisting protects devices from malware by preventing phishing emails and malicious advertisements from reaching users. It helps block the installation of insecure software, safeguarding public devices from potential threats.
2. Controlled Access:
Allowlisting enables organizations to narrow down the IP and email addresses that can reach their network or website. This provides better control over who can access sensitive information or resources.
3. Compliance and Privacy:
Allowlisting helps organizations meet security and privacy compliance requirements by ensuring that only approved entities have access to sensitive data.
Whitelisting Best Practices
To effectively implement and maintain whitelisting, organizations should follow these best practices:
- Document and categorize all whitelisted objects, such as email addresses, IP addresses, domain names, or applications.
- Be as specific as possible when creating whitelist objects to ensure precise control over access permissions.
- Regularly review and update the whitelist to add or remove apps or services as needed.
- Apply whitelists efficiently by grouping users based on job function and applying specific whitelists to each group.
How To Start Allowlisting
To start allowlisting, consider the following steps:
1. Evaluate Your Current Situation:
Begin by monitoring and evaluating your current environment. Identify the applications, email addresses, or IP addresses that are already trusted and should be included in the allowlist.
2. Determine Allowlist Criteria:
Define the criteria for entities or applications to be included in the allowlist. This could include factors such as reputation, authenticity, security features, or business relationships.
3. Implement Allowlisting Software:
Depending on the size and complexity of your organization, consider implementing allowlisting software or tools to manage and enforce the allowlist. These tools can help automate the process, provide centralized control, and offer additional security features.
4. Create and Maintain the Allowlist:
Use the allowlisting software to create and maintain the allowlist. Add approved email addresses, applications, or IP addresses to the list based on the defined criteria. Regularly review and update the allowlist to ensure it remains up to date and aligned with your organization’s security requirements.
5. Test and Fine-Tune:
Test the allowlist implementation to ensure it is functioning as intended. Fine-tune the allowlist rules and criteria based on feedback and monitoring to optimize security and usability.
6. Educate Users:
Provide training and education to users about the importance of allowlisting and how it enhances security. Encourage them to report any suspicious emails, applications, or IP addresses that should be considered for inclusion or removal from the allowlist.
7. Regularly Review and Update:
Continuously review and update the allowlist to adapt to changing security threats, business needs, or user requirements. Regularly assess the effectiveness of the allowlisting strategy and make necessary adjustments.